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  1. Current research suggests that the glial scar surrounding penetrating brain injuries is instrumental in preserving the surrounding uninjured tissue by limiting the inflammatory response to the injury site. We ...

    Authors: Kazadi Nadine Mutoji, Mingxia Sun, Amanda Nash, Sudan Puri, Vincent Hascall and Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:52

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Neutrophils induce the synthesis and release of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), a cytosolic growth factor involved in angiogenesis and capable of inducing several pro-inflammatory activities in neutrophils. Neutrophils...

    Authors: Elcha Charles, Benjamin L. Dumont, Steven Bonneau, Paul-Eduard Neagoe, Louis Villeneuve, Agnès Räkel, Michel White and Martin G. Sirois

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:51

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. Good's syndrome (GS) is a rare secondary immunodeficiency disease presenting as thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. Due to its rarity, the diagnosis of GS is often missed.

    Authors: Jinyao Ni, Junwu Zhang, Yanxia Chen, Weizhong Wang and Jinlin Liu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:50

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. Targeted immunotherapy is mostly associated with cancer treatment wherein designed molecules engage signaling pathways and mutant proteins critical to the survival of the cell. One of several genetic approache...

    Authors: Daniel A. Achinko, Anton Dormer, Mahesh Narayanan and Elton F. Norman

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:49

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. The presence of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*57:01 is associated with the development of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir (ABC). Limited data exist on HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in individuals with HIV...

    Authors: Malewe Kolou, Armel Poda, Zelica Diallo, Esther Konou, Tatiana Dokpomiwa, Jacques Zoungrana, Mounerou Salou, Lionèle Mba-Tchounga, André Bigot, Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Marielle Bouyout-Akoutet, Didier K. Ekouevi and Serge P. Eholie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:48

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity for patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. There is preliminary evidence that activated Group 2 innate l...

    Authors: Anand Srinivasan, Sandra Bajana, Aneta Pankow, Carrie Yuen, Rikin K. Shah and Xiao-Hong Sun

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:46

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a typical immuno-inhibitory cytokine and highly secreted by lung cancer cells. It was supposed that its immunosuppressive effects to NK cell might be related with the...

    Authors: Young Shin Lee, Hojung Choi, Hae-Ryung Cho, Woo-Chang Son, You-Soo Park, Chi-Dug Kang and Jaeho Bae

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:44

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. The successful ex vivo expansion of T-cells in great numbers is the cornerstone of adoptive cell therapy. We aimed to achieve the most optimal T-cell expansion condition by comparing the expansion of T-cells a...

    Authors: Sasan Ghaffari, Monireh Torabi-Rahvar, Sajjad Aghayan, Zahra Jabbarpour, Kobra Moradzadeh, Azadeh Omidkhoda and Naser Ahmadbeigi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:43

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Obesity is correlated with worse drug responses and high disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine that mainly produced by regulator...

    Authors: Yuxuan Li, Yang Jie, Xiaofei Wang and Jing Lu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:42

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. There is a global focus on illness diagnosis in smear-negative and latent tuberculosis infectious populations (SN-TB and LTBI). CD27 has been suggested to play a direct role in active TB. Little is known about...

    Authors: Feifan Xu, Haiyun Zhang, Xiaoyan Si, Junlin Chen, Yuhao Chen, Xiaopeng Cui and Yongwei Qin

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:41

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk for occupationally acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis (TB) disease due to repeated exposure to workplace tubercle bacilli. To determine whether c...

    Authors: Cui-lin Shi, Jian-ping Zhang, Ping Xu, Jin Li, Jie Shen, Mei-ying Wu, Zhi-jian Ye, Xin Yu, Hua-feng Song, Hui Chen, Jun-chi Xu, Yu Pang and Jian-an Huang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. The synergistic effect of chemoradiation (CRT) has been previously demonstrated in several cancer types. Here, we investigated the systemic immune effects of CRT in patients with lung or head and neck cancer.

    Authors: Jihane Boustani, Elodie Lauret Marie Joseph, Etienne Martin, Salim Benhmida, Benoit Lecoester, Florent Tochet, Céline Mirjolet, Cédric Chevalier, David Thibouw, Noémie Vulquin, Stéphanie Servagi, Xushan Sun and Olivier Adotévi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Chronic inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are heterogeneous and often co-morbid, with increasing global prevalence. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D) can result in severe i...

    Authors: Sarah E. Kleinstein, Jamison McCorrison, Alaa Ahmed, Hatice Hasturk, Thomas E. Van Dyke and Marcelo Freire

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:37

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Some long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) have decreasing CD4+ T cell counts and progress to AIDS. Exploring which subsets of CD4+ T cell decreasing and the determinants associated with the decay in these patients w...

    Authors: Ling Xu, Yubin Liu, Xiaojing Song, Yanling Li, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Wei Cao and Taisheng Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Mast cells (MCs) are known to contribute to both acute and chronic inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells are the first line of defence against pathogens and a deficient anti-viral response has been suggeste...

    Authors: Sangeetha Ramu, Hamid Akbarshahi, Sofia Mogren, Frida Berlin, Samuel Cerps, Mandy Menzel, Morten Hvidtfeldt, Celeste Porsbjerg, Lena Uller and Cecilia K. Andersson

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:35

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is widely considered as a pivotal immune checkpoint molecule to suppress antitumor immunity. However, the significance of soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) remai...

    Authors: Jiajia Liu, Xiaoyi Tian, Yan Wang, Xixiong Kang and Wenqi Song

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:33

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Macrophages play prominent roles in bacteria recognition and clearance, including Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete. To elucidate mechanisms by which MyD88/TLR signaling enhances clearance of...

    Authors: Sarah J. Benjamin, Kelly L. Hawley, Paola Vera-Licona, Carson J. La Vake, Jorge L. Cervantes, Yijun Ruan, Justin D. Radolf and Juan C. Salazar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:32

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an inborn errors of immunity, that leads to recurrent chronic infections and autoimmune/ inflammatory diseases and neoplasms. It is considered that these condition is...

    Authors: Itana Gomes Alves Andrade, Fabíola Isabel Suano de Souza, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Carolina Sanchez Aranda and Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:31

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signaling is considered to regulate anti-inflammatory responses in macrophages, dendritic cell maturation, osteoclast development, induction of obesity,...

    Authors: Hwa-Youn Lee, Eun-Hee Lee, Jawoon Yi, Kon-Young Ji, Su-Man Kim, Ha-Rim Choi, Su-Min Yee, Hyung-Sik Kang and Eun-Mi Kim

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is commonly accepted that the act of giving birth is the final step in a proinflammatory signaling cascade, orch...

    Authors: João Mendes, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Ana Luísa Areia, Jani-Sofia Almeida, Vera Alves, Manuel Santos-Rosa and Anabela Mota-Pinto

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Food proteins differ in their allergenic potential. Currently, there is no predictive and validated bio-assay to evaluate the allergenicity of novel food proteins. The objective of this study was to investigat...

    Authors: Mark Smits, Marjolein Meijerink, Thuy-My Le, André Knulst, Aard de Jong, Martinus Petrus Maria Caspers, Everton Souto Lima, Lilia Babé, Gregory Ladics, Scott McClain, Geert Houben and Kitty Verhoeckx

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:27

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Cytotoxic Natural Killer (NK) cells are increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to induce targeted cell death in cancer and autoimmune diseases. Still, basic blood NK cell parameters are poorly defined. The...

    Authors: Wolfgang Merkt, Ulrich Salzer, Jens Thiel, Ilona Jandova, Raoul Bergner, Ana C. Venhoff and Nils Venhoff

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:26

    Content type: Research article

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  23. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator expressed on T cells, and is also expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. The function of Tim-3 chiefly restricts IFNγ-produc...

    Authors: Xiaowen Yu, Bin Lang, Xi Chen, Yao Tian, Shi Qian, Zining Zhang, Yajing Fu, Junjie Xu, Xiaoxu Han, Haibo Ding and Yongjun Jiang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:25

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been extensively used as essential modulators in clinical infectious and inflammatory diseases. The GC receptor (GR) is a transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor famil...

    Authors: Wen-Teng Chang, Ming-Yuan Hong, Chien-Liang Chen, Chi-Yuan Hwang, Cheng-Chieh Tsai and Chia-Chang Chuang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:24

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2021 22:45

  25. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin and a vital component of gram-negative bacteria’s outer membrane. During gram-negative bacterial sepsis, LPS regulates osteoclast differentiation and activity, in addit...

    Authors: Mohammed S. AlQranei, Linda T. Senbanjo, Hanan Aljohani, Therwa Hamza and Meenakshi A. Chellaiah

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:23

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. The spread of a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and other countries is of great concern worldwide with no effective vaccine. This study aimed to d...

    Authors: Yassir A. Almofti, Khoubieb Ali Abd-elrahman and Elsideeq E. M. Eltilib

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:22

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Differential polarization of macrophage into M1 and M2 mediates atherosclerotic plaque clearance through efferocytosis. Higher expression of Mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MerTK) on M2 macrophage helps in...

    Authors: Fatin Najiah Mohd Idrus, Nurul Shuhadah Ahmad, Chee Hock Hoe, Maryam Azlan, Farisha Alia Norfuad, Zurkurnai Yusof, Wan Yus Haniff Wan Isa, Akbar Ali Mohamed Ali and Get Bee Yvonne-Tee

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:21

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Bacillus ancthracis causes cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal forms of anthrax. B. anthracis is a pathogenic bacterium that is potentially to be used in bioterrorism because it can be produced in the form ...

    Authors: Jun Ho Jeon, Yeon Hee Kim, Kyung Ae Kim, Yu-Ri Kim, Sun-Je Woo, Ye Jin Choi and Gi-eun Rhie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:20

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. We aimed to report the clinical characteristics, immunological features, and treatment of one patient with a de novo STAT3 gain-of-function mutation identified by next generation sequencing. We investigated th...

    Authors: Wenjie Wang, Luyao Liu, Xiaoying Hui, Ying Wang, Wenjing Ying, Qinhua Zhou, Jia Hou, Mi Yang, Bijun Sun, Jinqiao Sun and Xiaochuan Wang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:19

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Kawasaki disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology and most commonly occurs in children under 5 years old. Previous studies have found that the over-activation ...

    Authors: Qian Wu, Ruohang Weng, Yongbin Xu, Linlin Wang, Yanyan Huang and Jun Yang

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:17

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Behcet’s disease (BD) is a relapsing systemic vascular autoimmune/inflammatory disease. Despite much effort to investigate BD, there are virtually no unique laboratory markers identified to help in the diagnos...

    Authors: Linlin Cheng, Yang Li, Ziyan Wu, Liubing Li, Chenxi Liu, Jianhua Liu, Jiayu Dai, Wenjie Zheng, Fengchun Zhang, Liujun Tang, Xiaobo Yu and Yongzhe Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:16

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Immunogenicity is a major challenge in drug development and patient care. Clinicians and regulators are familiar with immunogenicity concerns of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics, growth factors and enzym...

    Authors: Lobna Abdel Aziz Kilany, Ayman Abdel Samie Gaber, Mohammad Mabrouk Aboulwafa and Hamdallah Hafez Zedan

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:15

    Content type: Research article

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  33. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus first recognized in late December 2019 that causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Due to the highly contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2, it has developed into a global pandemi...

    Authors: Xuzhen Qin, Jun Shen, Erhei Dai, Haolong Li, Guodong Tang, Lixia Zhang, Xin Hou, Minya Lu, Xian Wu, Simeng Duan, Jingjia Zhang, Man-Fung Tsoi, Ping Jiang and Yongzhe Li

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:14

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. CD100 is an immune semaphorin family member that highly expressed on T cells, which take part in the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important mediators fo.....

    Authors: Yan Li, Li Qin, Qijun Bai, Jingjing Zhang, Ruixue Chen and Kunpeng Song

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:13

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. NET (neutrophil extracellular trap) has been shown to directly influence inflammation; in SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), it is reportedly a plausible cause for the broken self-tolerance that contributes t...

    Authors: Alimohammad Fatemi, Razieh Alipour, Hossein Khanahmad, Fereshteh Alsahebfosul, Alireza Andalib and Abbasali Pourazar

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. This study investigates the effect of autologous bone marrow transfusion (BMT) on the reconstruction of both bone marrow and the immune system in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL).

    Authors: Yixuan Liu, Suhong Xie, Lei Li, Yanhui Si, Weiwei Zhang, Xin Liu, Lin Guo, Baochi Liu and Renquan Lu

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Understanding immune mechanisms, particularly the role of innate immune markers during latent TB infection remains elusive. The main objective of this study was to evaluate mRNA gene expression patterns of tol...

    Authors: Birhan Alemnew, Soren T. Hoff, Tamrat Abebe, Markos Abebe, Abraham Aseffa, Rawleigh Howe and Liya Wassie

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:9

    Content type: Research

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  38. Neutrophils are key components of the exacerbated inflammation and tissue damage in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) trap and kill extracellular pathogens. While NETs are abu...

    Authors: Samantha L. Tucker, Demba Sarr and Balázs Rada

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:7

    Content type: Research article

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  39. It is important to expound the opposite clinical outcomes between children and adulthood for eradicate malaria. There remains unknown about the correlation between adaptive immune response and age-related in m...

    Authors: Qiu-bo Wang, Yun-ting Du, Fei Liu, Xiao-dan Sun, Xun Sun, Guang Chen, Wei Pang and Ya-Ming Cao

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Recent outbreaks of Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection and associated microcephaly has raised multiple scientific questions. The close antigenic relatedness between flaviviruses makes diagnosis of specific infection ...

    Authors: Himanshu Garg, Rose Yeh, Douglas M. Watts, Tugba Mehmetoglu-Gurbuz, Robert Resendes, Bruce Parsons, Fernando Gonzales and Anjali Joshi

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. No reliable biological marker for the diagnosis of asthma in younger children is currently available. In this study, we analyzed the differences in basophil activation test (BAT) results among children with re...

    Authors: Jingyang Li, Jinhong Wu, Haipei Liu, Li Hua, Quanhua Liu, Dingzhu Fang, Yi Chen, Ruoxu Ji, Jianhua Zhang and Wenwei Zhong

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADCs) can interact with tumor cells to suppress anti-tumor T cell immunity. However, there is no information on whether and how TADCs can modulate programmed death-ligand 1 (...

    Authors: Weigang Xiu and Jingjing Luo

    Citation: BMC Immunology 2021 22:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Immunology 2021 22:18

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